The material of this article is mainly taken from. The second Dhu l-Qarnayn was Alexander the Great whose lineage goes back to Ibrahim (a).  Among Western academics, Brannon Wheeler has argued that the alleged similarities between Alexander romances and the Dhu al-Qarnayn story are actually based on later commentaries of the Qur'an rather than the Qur'an itself. In addition to Cyrus, other Persian kings have also been suggested as possible candidates for the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn, such as Fereydun, Xerxes I, and Darius III. Pronunciation of Dhul-Qadah with 2 audio pronunciations, 1 synonym, 3 translations and more for Dhul-Qadah. The Quran narrates the story of how Allah establishes Dhul-Qarnayn as a powerful ruler on earth and allows the king the … Lo! Listen to the audio pronunciation of Dhul-Qarnayn on pronouncekiwi.  According to Wahb ibn Munabbih, as quoted by Ibn Hisham, King Ṣaʿb was a conqueror who was given the epithet Dhu al-Qarnayn after meeting al-Khidr in Jerusalem. Dhu al-Qarnayn, (Arabic: ذُو ٱلْقَرْنَيْن Ḏū al-Qarnayn, IPA: [ðuː‿l.qar.najn]), Lit. while he supplies the technical expertise as a barrier preventing the entry of Gog and Magog, he instructs the people to bring their own raw materials and aid in the … There are different views about the issue in Shi'a hadiths. In general, the popularity of some myths about Alexander in the early Islamic period and some similarities between such myths and the Quranic story of Dhu l-Qarnayn as well as the sanctification of Alexander in Alexandria during the Hellenistic period by the first Christian communities led to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn with Alexander by Muslim exegetes and historians. Opponents of the view have cast doubts on all the above evidence for the view. Anyone who reads the story of Dhu’l-Qarnayn and how he dealt with this nation in Soorat al-Kahf will know for sure that they exist and that the barrier which was built is not metaphorical or imaginary, but is a physical barrier built of iron and melted copper. This is consistent with the title, "Dhu l-Qarnayn" (holder of two horns). Lexicons inform us that Dhul-Qarnain is an Arabic word that refers to an individual who finds two different centuries. Dhul Qarnain was a righteous and just king, who traveled the lands from West to East. , While the Syriac Legend references the horns of Alexander, it consistently refers to the hero by his Greek name, not using a variant epithet. In his travel to the northern Persia, Cyrus was asked by people there to construct an iron dam over the Darial Gorge, located in the Caucasus Mountains. Yet, taking into consideration the attributes of Dhul-Qarnayn that the Quran has mentioned, one can conclude that Dhul-Qarnayn was actually Cyrus the Great.  However, the supposed influence of the Syriac legends on the Quran have been questioned based on dating inconsistencies and missing key motifs. In order to solve some discrepancies with regard to Dhu l-Qarnayn, Ibn Kathir believed that there were people known as Alexander and Dhu l-Qarnayn, tracing the errors of earlier authors to regarding these two persons as identical. The story of Dhu al-Qarnayn is related in Surah 18 of the Quran, al-Kahf ("The Cave"). Abu Karb Shammir Yar'ash, the King of Himyar, https://en.wikishia.net/index.php?title=Dhu_l-Qarnayn&oldid=133794, Articles with quality and priority assessment, C grade priority and c grade quality articles, Cyrus's justice, good treatment of the peasants, generosity, and fairness in wars, according to the Old Testament and historians such as. Totally different views have been suggested in this regard.  According to Wheeler, it is possible that some elements of these accounts that were originally associated with Sa'b have been incorporated into stories which identify Dhu al-Qarnayn with Alexander.. Moreover, there is no historical evidence that Alexander ever constructed a dam as characterized in the Qur'an. At length, when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain sides, he said, "Blow (with your bellows)" then, when he had made it (red) as fire, he said: "Bring me, that I may pour over it, molten lead. The identity of Gog and Magog and the specification of the geographical location of the dam constructed by Dhu l-Qarnayn to obstruct Gog and Magog are key to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn. The main reason for the identification was that Alexander was historically known as a king who conquered different parts of the world, and it seemed that Dhu l-Qarnayn in the Qur'an also conquered different parts of the world. Thus, Allah admires the actions of Zul-Qarnayn and He shows that He is pleased with his deeds. : "He of the Two Horns"), also spelled Zu al-Qarnayn, appears in the Quran, Surah Al-Kahf (18), Ayahs 83-101 as one who travels to east and west and erects a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj). Hamdi Yazır and Mehmet Vehbi hold the view that Dhul-Qarnayn is a prophet acting upon the form of address 'O Dhul-Qarnayn!' (thou hast authority), either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness. (He left them) as they were: We completely understood what was before him. Some people suggested that he was contemporary with, and a student of, Aristotle.  Among Muslims, first promoted by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, this theory has generated wider acceptance over the years. The issue of "Dhu l-Qarnayn" in the Islamic culture originates from the Qur'an. The Persian Sunni mystic and theologian Al-Ghazali (Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, 1058–1111) wrote of how Dhu al-Qarnayn came across a people who had no possessions but dug graves at the doors of their houses; their king explained that they did this because the only certainty in life is death. He was the one who provided … The rather short Quranic account of the story of Dhu l-Qarnayn is a mysterious story of the Qur'an appearing after two other mysterious stories in Sura al-Kahf: the story of the Seven Sleepers (People of Kahf) and the story of Musa (a) (Moses) and Khidr. The verses of the chapter reproduced below show Dhu al-Qarnayn traveling first to the Western edge of the world where he sees the sun set in a muddy spring, then to the furthest East where he sees it rise from the ocean, and finally northward to a place in the mountains where he finds a people oppressed by Gog and Magog: A minority of Muslim commentators argue Gog and Magog here refers to some barbaric North Asian tribes from pre-Biblical times which have been free from Dhu al-Qarnayn's wall for a long time. Dhul-Qarnayn demonstrates humility, an essential quality of an ideal leader. "If he tells you about these things, then he is a prophet, so follow him, but if he does not tell you, then he is a man who is making things up, so deal with him as you see fit." ", He said: "This is a mercy from my Lord; but when the promise of my Lord cometh to pass, He will lay it low, for the promise of my Lord is true.". , According to Bietenholz, the story of Dhu al-Qarnayn has its origins in legends of Alexander the Great current in the Middle East in the early years of the Christian era. Until, when he reached (a tract) between two mountains, he found, beneath them, a people who scarcely understood a word. The view was first developed by western scholars in the middle of the 13th/19th century, although it found its way among Persian readers about 60 years later through a different route. The hero ascends Mount Qof, the "mother" of all other mountains (identified with the Alborz mountains on the northern border of Iran), which is made of emerald and forms a ring encircling the entire Earth with veins under every land. This agrees with the construction of a dam by Dhu l-Qarnayn against the invasions of Gog and Magog. In English, too, the word, "horn", is rooted in the Latin "cornu" which seems similar to the word, "qarn".  Ernst claims that Dhu al-Qarnayn finding the sun setting in a "muddy spring" in the West is equivalent to the "poisonous sea" found by Alexander in the Syriac legend. Thus, "Dhu l-Qarnayn" is used in Persian poetry as referring to Alexander the Great. The passage from the tafsir can be found in section 1.1 of the article (Dhul-Qarnayn in early Islamic literature). The king traveled eastwards and westwards.  Some modern Muslim scholars are in favor of identifying him with Cyrus the Great.. ", Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. The name “Dhul-Qarnayn” has been mentioned in surah Kahf. In some cases, Dhu l-Qarnayn is introduced as a prophet and a king, and in some cases, only as a faithful king. The Old Testament contains a reference to a ram with two horns as a metaphorical way of speaking about Persis and Medes kings, and according to hadiths about the occasion on which the verses about Dhu l-Qarnayn were revealed, the Jews initiated the issue of Dhu l-Qarnayn. Thus, it is probable that the Jews may have asked the Prophet (s) about a king with whom they were already familiar. The Holy Prophet sa prophesied: According to Muslim accounts, this chapter was revealed to Muhammad when his tribe, Quraysh, sent two men to discover whether the Jews, with their superior knowledge of the scriptures, could advise them on whether Muhammad was a true prophet of God. ", "Give me pieces of iron" - till, when he had leveled up (the gap) between the cliffs, he said: "Blow!" And We knew all concerning him. Moreover, in some other hadiths, he was introduced only as a beloved servant of God, and in another one, as a scholar. However, given other meanings of "qarn" such as hair, the crown or upper part of the head, the peripheries of the sun, a period of time equal to 30 or 80 years, and people of a period, and given the person to whom the title applies, different reasons have been offered for why the person in question is called "Dhu l-Qarnayn". He did not support either party of the disagreement, though he believed that there are Quranic verses which might demonstrate Dhu l-Qarnayn's prophethood, and so, he seems to be inclined to the view that Dhu l-Qarnayn was a prophet. : "He of the Two Horns"), also spelled Zu al-Qarnayn, appears in the Quran, Surah Al-Kahf (18), Ayahs 83-101 as one who travels to east and west and erects a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj). He said: "Whoever doth wrong, him shall we punish; then shall he be sent back to his Lord; and He will punish him with a punishment unheard-of (before). It must be clarified that there is a difference of opinion among the historians and commentators whether Dhu’l-Qarnayn was same as Alexander of Rome. Shi'a exegetes were mostly inclined to this view by appealing to this hadith, and thus, they did not inquire about the identity of Dhu l-Qarnayn. ", "Bring me blocks of iron." In one of many Arabic and Persian versions of the meeting of Alexander with the Indian sages. It is also suggested that he lived after Musa (a), or 300 years before the birth of 'Isa (a) (Jesus), or the interval period after 'Isa (a). He is considered by some people as a first generation of human beings—a son of Yafith (Japheth), the son of Nuh (a)—and by others as contemporary with the prophets Ibrahim (a) (Abraham) and Isma'il (a) (Ishmael). Dhul-Qarnayn (Arabic: ذو القرنين ḏū al-qarnayn, IPA: [ðuːlqarˈnajn]), literally "He of the Two Horns"   is a figure mentioned in the Qur'an, the sacred scripture of Islam, where he is described as a great and righteous ruler who built the wall that keeps Gog and Magog from attacking the people whom he met on his journey to the east (i.e., the rising of the sun). The word qarn means a horn, as also a generation or … ", They will ask thee of Dhu'l-Qarneyn. In recent periods, some people identified Dhu l-Qarnayn with Cyrus the Great (reign: 530BC-590BC). In fact, in all these languages it implies power and glory. Till, when he reached the rising-place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had appointed no shelter therefrom. The sun did not rise nor set but Dhul Qarnayn actually found it rising and setting. On that day We shall leave them to surge like waves on one another: the trumpet will be blown, and We shall collect them all together.  Elsewhere the Quran tells how the end of the world would be signaled by the release of Gog and Magog from behind the wall, and other apocalyptic writings report their destruction by God in a single night would usher in the Day of Resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyāmah). So (it was). They claim that the Old Testament, and in particular, the Book of Daniel, as well as historical accounts of Xenophon are not reliable sources. , Several notable Muslim commentators, including Ibn Kathir,:100-101 Ibn Taymiyyah:101 and Naser Makarem Shirazi, have strongly disagreed with the Alexander identification. Dhu al-Qarnayn, , Lit. Dhul-Qarnayn - Dhul-Qarnayn, (Arabic: ذو القرنين ḏū'l-qarnayn, IPA: [ðuːlqarˈnajn]), (Lit. Dhu l-Qarnayn (Arabic: ذوالقَرنَین) is the title of a character mentioned in the Qur'an. On that day we shall present hell to the disbelievers, plain to view. Dhumal (English) Proper noun Dhumal A surname. How do you say Dhul-Qarnayn? The view is based on a hadith from Imam 'Ali (a) and turned into a well-known view in later sources. Moreover, the main text of the Book of Daniel talks about "kings", rather than the "king", of Persis and Medes, and so, it does not apply to one and the same person. He lived around 300 years before the birth of 'Isa (a). Al-Tha'albi wrote that if this is true, then we should no longer concern ourselves with the issue. In western scholars about Dhu l-Qarnayn, it is widely held that he is identical to Alexander the Great, as implied by the entries on "Dhu l-Qarnayn" in Islamic Encyclopedia as well as the Encyclopedia of the Quran. , Early Muslim commentators and historians assimilated Dhu al-Qarnayn to several figures, among them Alexander the Macedonian, the Parthian king Kisrounis, the South-Arabian Himyarite king Sa'b Dhu Marathid, and the North-Arabian Lakhmid king al-Mundhir ibn Imru al-Qays. The Qur'an illustrates Dhu l-Qarnayn as a believer in God and the Resurrection who was equipped with new tools with the help of God. Moreover, some other kings of Yemen are also identified with Dhu l-Qarnayn, including Tubba' al-Aqran, the son of Shammir Yar'ash, Sa'b b. Harith, or Sa'b b. Hammal, or Sa'b b. Dhi Yazan, a son of Wa'il b. Himyar. For example, Mundhir b. Ma' al-Sama' al-Lakhmi was called "Dhu l-Qarnayn". Found 0 sentences matching phrase "Dhu al-Hijjah".Found in 0 ms. According to Abu Rayhan Biruni, al-Adhwa' are from Yemen, and the king of Yemen is called "Dhu l-Qarnayn" because he had two braided strings of hair. , Dhu al-Qarnayn the traveller was a favourite subject for later writers. Dhul-Qarnayn (The two-horned in English) features in the Qur'an, the sacred scripture believed by Muslims to have been revealed by Allah to Muhammad.The story of Dhul-Qarnayn appears in seventeen short verses of the Qur'an, specifically verses 18:83-99 of Surah Al-Kahf.  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